The NASDAQ was originally founded back in 1971 by the NASD and originally stood for the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations and operates out of New York, being the largest electronic-based trading exchange in the United States, with approximately 3,300 companies listed on its service, and an average trading volume notably above any other exchange, including the prominent NYSE Group.
In more recent years, the NASDAQ listed itself on its own exchange as NDAQ back in 2002 and can therefore be publicly traded and invested. Ironically the NASDAQ once halted trading on itself due to the announcement of a large acquisition of the LSE.
Originally controlled by the National Association of Securities Dealers, the NASDAQ is now a fully independant company as a result of a number of divestments by the NASD itself.
Google (Symbol: GOOG) is an internet-based search engine business that generates its revenue through a a widespread system of ad brokeraging on its site, and through various schemes to spread the system of advertising to generate revenue for website owners and resultantly increase its overall exposure.
Google offers a wide variety of different searching systems to the public in a wide variety of languages that range from simple internet seaching, to clothing directories, map searches and even more specialised services utilised by scholars and military personnel.
Google is a member of the S&P500 index and the NASDAQ 100 index as well, giving Google a greater market liquidity, and thus making it obvious that Google trades on the NASDAQ exchange.