The need for cash to take advantage of investment opportunities that may arise.
Speculative demand refers to real balances held for the purpose of avoiding capital loss from holding bonds. The net return on bonds is the sum of the interest payment and the capital gain(or loss).A rise in interest rate will cause bond prices to fall, and that implies a capital loss from holding bonds. Accordingly, the return on bonds can be negative. thus, people hold money to avoid the loss from bonds
On the other hand, assets demand for money is the money held by people to avoid the risk of capital loss due to holding other financial assets, e.g., bonds, equities, long-term bonds, etc., because these assets have variable market values. Money is treated as a form of asset for storing wealth.
The assets demand for money is inversely related to the market interest rate. This is because at lower interest rate, more people will expect a rise in interest rate(or a fall in bond prices). As a result, more people will hold their wealth in money rather than bonds, i.e. the speculative balances will be greater at a lower interest rate. It also depends on investors aversion to risk, the relative demand for and the supply of other financial assets and real assets and the change in expectations of the economic climate.
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